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This should be completed before rainy season

The due period-(November - February)

a). Removal of the entire trees of the land

If it is a replanting land, points of the died trees of the old stand should be demarcated before removing the trees.
The trees must be uprooted enabling to curtail the risk of spreading the white root disease to the new planting.

b). Soil Conservation Measures and Construction of Fences.
In line with the location of the land, one or a certain number of following soil conservation measures should be adopted.

Agricultural Practices – Contour Planting.

Weeds on embankments and on areas close to the fences should not be completely removed and they should be kept under control..

 

The due period-(January - March).

c). Biological Practices
Cover Cropping – Cover Crops such as Mucuna, Pueraria, Desmodium are suitable for this purpose.

Citronella grass can be grown thickly along the Contour Hedges.

Mulching – Paddy straw or Crotalaria, Flemingia and Gliricidia as green manure can be used for this purpose.

d). Mechanical Practices
Construction of Drains - Normally, natural drain lines already indicated in the land can be used as main drains and the distance between two drains should be approximately 60 m. The lateral drains should be on the Contour lines with a slope of 1 in 120. The spacing of lateral drains can bring the drain lines within 1.5-1.8 of the planting rows..

Construction of Stone Terraces – It is opportune to construct contour stone terraces on very rocky land, where it is impossible to cut continuous lateral drains. In the construction of stone terraces, the upper side of the terrace should be on a perfect Contour and the lower side of the terrace should be wider than the top.

 Normally, around 510-520 rubber plants per hectare can be planted.

The due period-( March).

Planting Distances-
Avenue type planting 3.5 x 5.5 m.

Square planting 4.3 x 4.5 m.

The above second method should be followed, if intercropping is to be undertaken. Further, changing the planting distances between replanting cycles and disuse of holes of the old rubber stand for replanting has helped to reduce the incidence of White Root disease in the replanting.

The width of the planting hole should be ‍2 x 2 x 2.5 feet.

The due period-( March).

The position of the hole may have to be changed if rocks are encounted. Holes must be refilled with top soil free of rocks, stones, roots or any other extraneous matter. Planting holes should be prepared at least ane month in advance, refilled and allowed to settle naturally.

Planting should be done with the onset of the monsoon rains. The major rainy season falls in May-June. In the Districts of Monaragala, Badulla, Ampara and Hambantota, planting is undertaken during the period of North-East rainy season that falls in October.

The due period- (May - June),(October - November)

a). Selection of a suitable plant
It is more opportune to plant young buddings. Because, it shows a rapid and fast growth as the root system of the plant is not damaged in the events of production and planting of young buddings. The budded rubber plants with 2 leaf whorls including a hardened top whorl are suitable for planting.

b).Planting in the Field
Prior to planting the polybag plant, a part of the filled soil of the planting hole should be removed, and the polybag plant should be brought to the planting hole and the base of the polybag should be removed. Then, the plant should be lowered into the planting hole carefully positioning the graft union a 2 inches below the ground level. If the graft union is not hardened ( If it is green in colour), the graft union should not be filled with soil. The remaining 2 inches of the hole should be allowed to settle naturally. Since the green graft union may be rotten when the water collected in the hole, a small drain should be made to take the water collected in the hole away.

If it is envisaged to grow an intercrop or a mixed crop with rubber, the spacing of planting crops is 2.5 x 7.75m and the intercrops or mixed crops should be planted leaving a gap of 8 feet for rubber. If Tea is grown as a mixed crop with rubber, two spacing systems have been introduced. The first spacing is 2.4 x 12m. Accordingly, 7 rows of tea may be interplanted between 2 rubber rows. The second spacing is 2.4 x 18m. Accordingly, 12 rows of tea may be interplantd betwen 2 rubber rows.

The due period- (May - June),(October - November).

Crops suitable for intercropping at the immature phase of rubber are Banana, Pineapple, Passion fruit, Sugarcane, Annual and Seasonal crops, Medicinal Plants.

Crops that can be grown without compromising on the rubber density in unit land area – Coffee, Cocoa


Crops that can be grown changing the rubber density in unit land area – Tea, Cinnamon, Pepper.


Crops suitable for intercropping at the mature phase of rubber are Cardamom, vanilla, Rattan, Anthuriam.

In addition, Poultry farming and Apiculture on rubber lands are other potential sources for income generation.

a). Optimum growth and yield of plants can be achieved by properly application of the required quantity of the recommended fertilizer to the tree in due period.

There are two fertilizer mixtures for rubber. They are; Urea based fertilizer mixtures and Ammonia Sulphate based fertilizer. Since the percentage of Nitrogen in the Urea based fertilizer is higher, the application of Urea based fertilizer is more profitable.

b).Rates of application of fertilizer

The quantity of Urea based fertilizer that should be applied per tree as follows.

1st year 4 applications  275g
2nd year 4 applications 550g
3rd and 4th years 3 applications 800g
5th year until tapping 3 applications 1100g

 

In addition, in order to avoid the deficiency of Magnesium, an extra dose of Kieserite at the rate of 75g per tree in the 1st year and Dolomite at the rate of 150g, 200g, 200g, 250g respectively from the 2nd year until tapping, without mixing with rubber fertilizer should be applied to the rubber tree within a period of one month. Application of Dolomite mixing with rubber fertilizer is not recommended at all. Kieserite may be applied mixing with rubber fertilizer. Application of Dolomite to the tapping trees in order to avoid the deficiency of Magnesium is not recommended. It is opportune to apply Kieseite to such trees.

c). Method of application of fertilizer

In the application of fertilizer to rubber plants in the 1st and 2nd years, the fertilizer should be applied around the plant to be in line with the size of leaf whorl of the plant and filled with soil. That is, when the plant has grown within a radius of one feet from the base of tree, forking 3 or 4 points 3-4 feet from the base of the plant, the required quantity of fertilizer should be applied to the forked holes and filled with soil. Further, the area to be applied fertilizer, should be cleared of weeds. Where mulching is carried out, it should be spread in a circle one feet from the base of the tree after application of fertilizer. Paddy straw and leaf litters are suitable for this purpose.

Fertilizer should be applied from the first month after planting, during the immature phase, once in three months up to 2 years and in the same manner for 3rd and 4th years, and 3 applications per year until tapping. The application of fertilizer per tapping tree should be done once or twice per year. Itshoud be determined on the easiness to obtain labour.

d). Time of fertilizer applicationය
Fertilizer should not be applied at the height of dry weather and the heavy rainy season. All fertilizers for mature rubber should be applied within one month after refoliation. In the wet zone, fertilizer for mature rubber should be applied before June.
2 weeks after planting until 2 weeks before bud grafting. After cut back, after first whorl of leaves until 2 weeks before planting, Once in 2 weeks


f). Fertilization of Nurseries.

Area Virgin bark Renewed bark Quantity per year
Kegalle, Kurunegala, kandy 200g of Urea ‍
100g of Eppawala rock phosphate 100g of Muarate of Potash
150g of Urea 75g of Muarate of Potash 3 applications
All other areas 200g of Urea ‍
100g of Eppawala rock phosphate200g of Muarate of Potash
150g of Urea 150g of Muarate of Potash 3 applications


g.) Fertilization of Nursers

Fertilization of young budding nurseries . 100% soluble fertilizer should be applied for this purpose. The fertilizer mixture is different according to the soil series. R/YB 13:17:6:3 mixtures for the districts of Kegalle and Kurunegala where Parambe series occur, R/YB 9:12:11:5 for Matale area and R/YB 9:12:11:5 ‍for all other rubber growing districts should be applied.

Composition of fertilizer mixture

Mixture Sulphate of Ammonia Diammonium of Phosphate Sulphate of Potash Epsom Salt Total
R/YB 13:17:6:3 31 38 13 18 100
&R/YB 9:12:11:5 23 25 23 29 100
R/YB 13:16:16 32 35 35 - 100

The due period-Once in every three months before 2 months of bud grafting Throughout the year

h). Recommendation for young budding plants.
Quentity

50g of Imported Rock Phosphate per polybag.
50ml of the first fertilizer mixture per polybag.
50ml of the second fertilizer solution per polybag .

i). Method of application of fertilizer.

Prior to planting germinated seeds in the polybag, 50g of imported rock phosphate should be thoroughly mixed with the soil in the polybag. Dissolve required quantities in 4.5 litres of water and apply 50ml of this solution per bag.

j). Fertilization of ground-cover crops.

When establishing leguminous covers in beds or strips in the plantation, a dressing of 100g of rock phosphate per square meter would be beneficial. Subsequently, phosphate may be effectively applied by dusting some rock phosphate on the cover crops at the rate of 100 to 200kg per hectare in the first year depending on the growth of covers.

k). Fertilization of Nurseries (Stock nurseries)

The initial manuring of a nursery bed should be done with a 3:1 mixture of rock phosphate and dolomite lime for Parambe series and Homagama series soils. This should be applied at the rate of 4cwt per acre and well forked into the surface of the nursery beds to a depth of 15-20cm. In Matale series soils (GroupII), initial manuring should be done with rock phosphate only, at the rate of 350kg per hectare.

After planting germinated seeds Urea-based fertilizer mixture
RU 12:14:17
Quantity
25g 50g of Kieserite
Sulphate of ammonia based fertilizer mixture RU 9:12:4:2 or R/SA 8:9:4 30g

a.) Planting is normally undertaken in the South West monsoon rainy season and North East monsoon rainy season.
If an unexpected dry spell occurs continuously after panting, the plants should be watered and suitable mulch should be placed around the plants. Materials such as Gliricidia, paddy straw are suitable for this purpose. All plants should be inspected always and if the scion shoot has grown outside the bark, it should be removed. The scion should be made to grow with a single un-branched stem up to a height of about 8 feet. The lateral branches developed at the height of 8 feet from the ground level should also be removed as a clear stem is required for tapping.

The period of first 4 – 6 weeks.

b). The weak plants should be replaced with similar suitable plants.

At the onset of planting, a certain number of plants should be maintained for that purpose. Then the dead plants can be replaced inspecting the reason for the death of plants. Thereby, a full stand with good quality plants can be maintained.

After 2 years of the plants

c). Measures to be taken for branch induction.

The budded plants of most of the clones branch naturally. However, the plants of RRIC 121 clone sometime grow up straight line without branching. The branch induction at the height of 8 feet can be undertaken covering the apical bud by the hardened top leaf whorl of the same plant or mature leaves detached from another rubber plant. After the branch developed at the required size, the apex would be opened. The apex should not cut for branch induction.

The period of Throughout the year.

d). An area of 3-4 feet around the rubber tree should be cleaned and free of weeds.

The period of Throughout the year.

e).If the cover crops such as Mucuna which shows a rapid growth are maintained without control, such crops grow up embracing the trunk of rubber trees. Therefore, such cover crops should be maintained without a control.

Various parts of the rubber tree is susceptible to various diseases in various stages. It can be categorized as follows.
Diseases infected to leaf
.Diseases infected to stem
.Diseases infected to root

Among the above diseases, root diseases are very important. Because, the symptoms are seen after infection of the disease to the tree. Therefore, the keen attention should be drawn on the root diseases. The rubber plants may be preserved from root diseases to some extent through the removal of the complete root system when uprooting the old rubber stand and sprinkling of sulphur on the surface of soil in planting. Symptoms of the diseases are downward buckling of leaves, leaf yellowing, premature flowering and heavy pod set.The infected tree as well as adjoining trees are to be treated . Some of other root diseases are Black root disease, Fusorium wilt and Ustulina root rot. This disease can be controlled pouring the fungicides containing Tebuconazele or Hexaconagole around the base of the tree. The fungicides containing Tebuconazele are Policar, Oriyas and the fungicides containing Hexaconagole are Cantash and Ireshasr.

a). Stem and Branch Diseases

Stem rot and Phytophthora
Pink disease
.Ustulina
Colletotrichum

This disease occurs during the Southwest monsoon season
b). Leaf Diseases

. Powdery mildew
. Phytophthora leaf fall
. Colletotrichum leaf disease
. Anthrasnos
. Corynespora leaf fall
. Bird’s eye spot disease

Stem diseases can be controlled spraying a fungicide such as Brunolinum on the affected portion. also Throughout the year we can observe.

c). Treatments for Leaf Diseases

The diseases can be controlled spraying the fungicides such as Dithane M45, Captan, Antracol, Coppersandoz, Copperoxychloride and Perenox at weekly intervals.

a). Selection of suitable trees for tapping
Before tapping of new clearing is commenced, 60% of the number of trees should be at a height of 120cm from the highest point of tree union and a girth of 50cm. in a tappable clearing, trees having a girth of more than 45cm may also be marked for tapping.

b). Marking of trees for tapping
The trunk of the tree should be divided into two equal halves (Cut to face East-West) and tapping should be undertaken in one part of the tree. Cuts should be made at 30° to the horizontal sloping.
Using of a stencil made out of an aluminium sheet is essential for marking of trees for tapping and the lines drawn on the stencil should be marked and the cut should be correctly continued.

Recommended time is February - March

c). Guidelines to be followed in tapping.

A bark consumption of 0.125cm (1/20”) per tapping excision is used.

The best yield can be obtained by tapping as close as possible to the cambium but without injuring these delicate cells
The commencement of tapping in a new clearing is suitable in a dry climate and the recovery tapping is not recommended during the first three years. Two normal tapping days should be in between every 2 recovery tappings. Two tappings should be limited to 2 days per week. Likewise it should not be exceeded 6 days per month. Tapping of one side of the rubber tree should be undertaken for atleast 6 years.

Suitable methods for the scarcity of tappers and the reduction of tapping cost. Low intencified tapping (If it is a tapping of clearing once in two days, conversion pf such tapping clearing into a tapping of clearing once in 3 or 4 days through the application of stimulants)

d). Methods of application of stimulants
During other periods of the year except for the leaf falling period, a stimulant of 2.5% Ethrel should be applied on 01 inch band just below tapping cut on the bark. If the tapping is undertaken once in 3 days, 4-5 rounds per year and if the tapping is undertaken once in 4 days, 9 rounds should be applied.
If highly concentrated Ethrel is used, the due concentration should be made by mixing Ethrel with rather warm water. If it is applied above the tapping cut, it should be applied 0.5cm above the tapping cut. If it is applied below the tapping cut, (When the tapping panel has been wounded) the bark should be rather scraped. The tapping should be undertaken after 48 hours of the application of stimulants in order to obtain maximum results from stimulants.

, The suitable time period is In other months of the year except for February

e).Correction of tapping cuts
The correct method of tapping should be undertaken by the tapper. However, the cambium may be wounded as the recommended practices were not followed on some occations. Therefore, tapping of the renewed bark may be difficult and hardness of the bark also may be reduced. Hence, correct methods should be followed and tapping should be continued for a long period of time. Thereby, a large number of latex vessels will be cut and the latex harvest also may be increased. A large quantity of harvest may be reaped for a long period of time without damaging the rubber tree, through the correct handling pf the tapping cuts.

. The suitable time period is February - March.

a). Advantages of using rainguards

. Annual income of the tapper can be increased by 40%.
. The recommended tapping method can be protected.
. It may be a solution of tappers.
. A sustainable income can be derived.
. The rubber tree can be conserved from stem diseases.
. The sum of money incurred for suppression of diseases can be saved by fixing rainguards.

 b). Types of rainguards

. Apron type
. Gutter type

.The suitable time is the March.

 c). Maintenance of rainguards
Normally, the effective period of the above rainguards is one year. The maintenance of rainguards is essential to avoidsubsequant water leaks. The places of water leaks subsequant to arain should be monitored and the brushable sealant should be applied again. If there is water leaks without sliping rain guards, the application of liquid sealant on the seal is sufficient.

.The time period of maintaining is May - September.

d).Ingredients needed for preparation of rainguards

. Sealant - There are two typs. Half solid type and liquid type.
. Polythene.

Sheet rubber contributes to approximately half of the total gross rubber production. The production of high standard qualitative sheet rubber helps not only to earn a high income but also to enhance the standard of the finished products.

. The time period is Throughout the year.

a).Collection of Latex.
The all equipment specially used for collection of latex should be fully cleaned. Since the collection of latex to dirty equipment will cause to pre-coagulate the latex, the use of clean equipment will help to avoid the pre- coagulation of latex. If latex is pre-coagulated, 15ml – 50ml of Sodium Sulphite liquid prepared by mixing 1kg of Sodium Sulphite with 30 litre of pure water is sufficient per field latex.

b). Straining of Latex.
The latex mixed with the required water should be strained by the strainer (Sal Ada) made of Gauge 40 and 50 single mesh. It is not at all suitable to use brass metal meshes.

c). Coagulation of Latex.
As the next step, the strained latex should be coagulated by mixing acid. The Fomic Acid bought from a shop has to be prepared as 1% mixture. 1% acid mixture can be prepared by adding 84 units of water to 1 unit of acid. 4 litre of strained latex should be poured into a cleaned tray and 382.5-425 ml of the acid mixture is to be added to the same tray. Then the acid and latex should be mixed well by using a spatula. The foam arisen therein should be taken away by using aluminium or glass strap.The trays are to be covered in order to protect them from dusts and dirts.

d). Preparation for moulding of rubber sheets.
After coagulation of latex well, it should be laid on the table where an aluminium sheet was fixed and it is to be pressed by hands to be in same thickness.Thereafter, the said rubber sheet should be washed by fresh water.

e). Moulding of rubber sheets
Firstly, rollers have to be washed by fresh water in order to remove the rust of rollers. Thereafter, the rubber sheet is to be moulded thrice by the water exhausting roller changing the weight from time to time. The thickness of the sheet should be about 3.2 mm. Then, it is to be moulded once from the Diamon roller.

f.). Re-washing of sheets
The sheets moulded by rollers are to be re-washed in fresh water. If there is possibility to wash the sheets in running water, it is more suitable.

g). Drying in the air.
The rubber sheets washed should be hanged on the place without dust for 4-6 hours for drying purpose. According to the findings of recent researches, drying of rubber sheets in the sun has been recommended. Accordingly, it is better to dry rubber sheets in the sun for 2-3 days.

. The time period of drying in the air is From 4 hours to 6 hours.

. The time period of drying in the sun is about 2 – 3 days.

h).Collection of Latex
The all equipment specially used for collection of latex should be fully cleaned. Since the collection of latex to dirty equipment will cause to pre-coagulate the latex, the use of clean equipment will help to avoid the pre- coagulation of latex. If latex is pre-coagulated, 15ml – 50ml of Sodium Sulphite liquid prepared by mixing 1kg of Sodium Sulphite with 30 litre of pure water is sufficient per field latex.

i). Straining of Latex
The latex mixed with the required water should be strained by the strainer (Sal Ada) made of Gauge 40 and 50 single mesh. It is not at all suitable to use brass metal meshes.

 

Rubber Prices

16 February 2017
Grade Price Range
LC No.1XUnq - Unq
LC No.1Unq - Unq
LC No.2Unq - Unq
LC No.3Unq - Unq
LC No.4310.00 - Flat
SC (Br) No.1305.00 - Nom
SC (Br) No.2Unq - Unq
SC (Br) No.3310.00 - Flat
SC (Br) No.4302.00 - 307.00
Flat BarkUnq - Unq
Skim CrepeUnq - Unq
RS Sheet No.1355.00 - Flat
RS Sheet No.2345.00 - 350.00
RS Sheet No.3340.00 - 342.00
RS Sheet No.4338.00 - Nom
RS Sheet No.5Unq - Unq

Note: Rubber Price changes twice a week (Tuesday & Thursday)

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